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中国技术创新激励政策:激励了数量还是质量 被引量:5

The Effect of China’s Incentive Policies for Technological Innovation:Incentivizing Quantity or Quality
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摘要 中国创新驱动发展战略的实施助推了整体科技创新水平的提升,但也带来了微观层面策略性创新和宏观层面“数量长足、质量跛脚”的创新困境。在迈向创新强国之路上,作为创新驱动发展战略的核心内涵和重要工具,以税收优惠、创新补贴为核心的一揽子技术创新激励政策是否导致了中国技术创新上述困境?基于对这一问题的回答,本文利用中国企业授权发明专利数据,以及机器学习和语义引用方法,测度了企业技术创新质量;在此基础上,利用中国税收调查数据、中国工业企业科技活动调查数据和中国高新技术企业名录等,实证检验了中国技术创新主要激励政策对企业技术创新质量和数量的影响。研究发现:①以“研发费用加计扣除”为代表的普适型政策仅促使了企业增加技术创新数量,对企业技术创新质量的影响不显著;②以“高新技术企业认定”以及“高新技术企业所得税减免”为代表的选择支持型政策,同时激励了企业提升技术创新质量和创新数量;③以“政府科技活动资金投入”为代表的自由裁量型政策,则对企业技术创新数量和质量都无影响。本文为企业技术创新质量提供了新的测度方法,更为合理评估中国技术创新激励政策提供了重要依据。 Besides boosting the overall capacity of technology and innovation,the implementation of China’s innovation-driven development strategy has brought about strategy innovation in microscopic view and an innovation dilemma of pursuing more quantity instead of high quality in macroscopic view.With tax incentives and innovation subsidies as the core,does the package of innovation incentive policies eventually lead to the above innovation dilemma in China?In order to answer the above question,this paper firstly uses the data of granted innovation patents of Chinese enterprises,leveraging machine learning and semantic references to measure the innovation quality of Chinese enterprises.On this basis,this paper empirically examines the impact of innovation incentive policies on the quantity and quality of innovation in China,using China’s tax census data,China’s key tax sources data,the data of China’s industrial enterprise science activity survey and China’s high-tech enterprise list.This paper finds that:①The universal policy represented by additional deduction policy of R&D expenses only promotes enterprises to increase innovation quantity,and it has no significant impact on the innovation quality.②The selective support policy represented by recognition of high-tech enterprises and reduction and exemption of income tax of high-tech enterprises stimulates enterprises to improve the quantity and quality at the same time.③The discretionary policy represented by government investment in science and technology activities has no influence on the quantity and quality of technological innovation.As conclusion,this paper provides a new method to measure the innovation quality of enterprises and provides important evidence for reasonable evaluation of China’s innovation incentive policies.
作者 陈强远 林思彤 张醒 CHEN Qiang-yuan;LIN Si-tong;ZHANG Xing(The National Academy of Development and Strategy of Renmin University of China,Beijing 100872,China;School of Economics of Shanghai University,Shanghai 200444,China)
出处 《中国工业经济》 CSSCI 北大核心 2020年第4期79-96,共18页 China Industrial Economics
基金 国家自然科学基金青年项目“异质性企业空间选择与城市生产率溢价:理论、机制与中国经验”(批准号71603160) 国家自然科学基金面上项目“产业动态发展视角下贸易政策与产业政策的协调机制与中国实践”(批准号71573171) 上海市晨光资助计划“筑巢引凤还是筑巢育凤——中国城市技术创新推进模式分析”(批准号16CG47)。
关键词 创新激励政策 技术创新质量 企业创新 机器学习 语义引用 innovation incentive policy technological innovation quality enterprise innovation machine learning semantic reference
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