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委内瑞拉私有经济利益集团的共容性与协约民主时期的经济政策 认领

Encompassing Property of Venezuelan Private Interest Group and Economic Policies in the Pacted Democracy Period
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摘要 私有经济利益集团(也可简称“私有集团”)是委内瑞拉社会的重要组成部分,是该国最重要的经济利益集团之一。在委内瑞拉协约民主时期的近40年中,私有集团在经济和政治上都发挥了较大的影响力,这种影响力在各时期经济政策的制定中均有体现。随着私有集团自身的结构演变以及参与决策的机制变迁,私有集团对经济政策的影响在不同时期体现了不同特征。本文从制度经济学公共选择理论的“共容性组织”相关理论出发,探讨委内瑞拉私有集团组织的共容性演变过程,分析私有集团在国家经济政策制定中角色的演变,揭示其在协约民主体系瓦解过程中的作用。研究发现,在整个协约民主时期,私有集团的共容性逐步降低,其政策诉求日益多样化,决策参与的主导机制由正式逐步转向非正式。以上过程相互强化,导致扭曲的经济政策出台且难以被纠正,进而导致自由化改革失败。经济政策失误导致的危机引发并加剧了政治的不稳定并最终导致协约民主体系的崩溃。从委内瑞拉的经历得出的重要启示是,国家必须谨慎设计将私有经济利益集团纳入决策参与的制度机制。 Private economic interest group is an important part of Venezuelan societyIn the nearly 40 years of the country’s pacted democracy period,the group has exerted a great economic and political influence,and this influence has been reflected in the formulation of economic policies in various periodsWith the evolution of the group’s own structure and in the mechanism for participating in decision-making process,the influence of private interest group on economic policies has shown different characteristics in each periodBased on the theory of “encompassing organization” of the public choice theory of institutional economics,this article analyzes the evolutionary process of the private economic interest group in Venezuela as an encompassing organization and its role in the collapse of the pacted democracy systemThe analysis found that throughout the period of pacted democracy,the encompassing property of the private interest group gradually decreased,and their policy demands became increasingly diverse,moreover,the dominant mechanism for decision-making participation gradually changed from formal to informalAnd because the above processes are mutually reinforcing,distorted economic policies are promulgated and difficult to be corrected,which leads to the failure of the liberalization reformThe crisis caused by these economic policy mistakes triggered and exacerbated political instability and eventually led to the collapse of the pacted democracyAn important lesson from the Venezuelan experience is that the state must carefully design the institutional mechanisms that incorporate the private economic interest group in the decision-making process。
作者 丁宁 Ding Ning(不详)
出处 《拉丁美洲研究》 2020年第3期137-153,158,共18页 Journal of Latin American Studies
关键词 委内瑞拉 私有部门 利益集团 共容性 经济政策 协约民主 Venezuela private sector interest group encompassing organization economic policy pacted democracy
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