In 2013, World-Universe Model (WUM) proposed a principally different way to solve the problem of Newtonian Constant of Gravitation measurement precision. WUM revealed a self-consistent set of time-varying values of Pr...In 2013, World-Universe Model (WUM) proposed a principally different way to solve the problem of Newtonian Constant of Gravitation measurement precision. WUM revealed a self-consistent set of time-varying values of Primary Cosmological parameters of the World: Gravitation parameter, Hubble’s parameter, Age of the World, Temperature of the Microwave Background Radiation, and the concentration of Intergalactic plasma. Based on the inter-connectivity of these parameters, WUM solved the Missing Baryon problem and predicted the values of the following Cosmological parameters: gravitation G, concentration of Intergalactic plasma, relative energy density of protons in the Medium, and the minimum energy of photons, which were experimentally confirmed in 2015-2018. Between 2013 and 2018, the relative standard uncertainty of G measurements decreased x6. The set of values obtained by WUM was recommended for consideration in CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants 2014.展开更多
The municipal solid waste (msw) is a source of landfill gas (msw)—with methane gas content. Preoccupations for landfill gas (msw) management date back since 1976 when, at a landfill (msw) in California (USA), it turn...The municipal solid waste (msw) is a source of landfill gas (msw)—with methane gas content. Preoccupations for landfill gas (msw) management date back since 1976 when, at a landfill (msw) in California (USA), it turned out practically that the landfill gas (msw) with methane gas content contains a gas with high caloric value that can be collected and used for economic purposes. The landfill gas (msw) contains methane gas (30% - 60% volume), carbon dioxide (45% - 50% volume), hydrogen sulfide and other gases. Methane gas, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and other gases are listed in Kyoto Protocol as high greenhouse gases. Their ecological-rational management is both a national and global preoccupation. In terms of greenhouse gases, especially methane gas, the landfill (msw) is held responsible for 3.5% - 5% of the total global greenhouse gases. Practically, the quantitative estimation of the methane gas in a municipal solid waste landfill can be done by measuring the landfill gas (msw) flow in an extraction-collection well. In Romania, a quantitative estimation relationship of methane gas from deposits (msw) was made, approaching the problem in a different way. This paper presents the calculation formula, the working algorithm, the municipal waste landfill equation and the NOMOGRAMA of a municipal solid waste landfill (msw). The NOMOGRAMA allows us to define the values for parameter -m- (number of months needed for an amount of municipal solid waste (msw) to degrade, starting with the year from which the landfill gas (msw) emission with methane gas content is calculated). Taking into account the environmental conditions for each location of municipal solid waste landfill, the calculation uses various indexes and approximations, while the fundamental parameter remains -m- defined by the NOMOGRAMA of the municipal solid waste landfill (msw). A municipal solid waste landfill (msw) is a conglomerate of waste with various biodegradation periods between 2 - 3 years and 5 - 10 - 30 years. Degradation of waste (msw) in to dissolved organic carbon will take place in a number of months defined -m- starting with the year from which the methane gas emission with the NOMOGRAMA of the municipal solid waste landfill (msw) is calculated. The -m- values for the year of the quantitative emission of methane gas can be also done analytically, which requires good experience in the ecologic-rational management of the municipal solid waste (msw).展开更多
The work presented herein investigates the velocity, heat transfer, Nusselt number and skin friction profiles involved in boundary layer flow past a moving vertical porous plate. Similarity transformations are employe...The work presented herein investigates the velocity, heat transfer, Nusselt number and skin friction profiles involved in boundary layer flow past a moving vertical porous plate. Similarity transformations are employed to convert the governing nonlinear unsteady momentum and energy equations from their partial differential equation forms to boundary value ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are then solved numerically by the Runge-Kutta fourth order method with the help of a shooting technique. Several features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of problem parameters are analyzed and discussed. These include the effects of the radiation parameter (R), suction and injection parameter (c), Grashof (Gr) and Prandtl (Pr) numbers on the flow and heat profiles. Numerical results show the impact of blowing and sucking as well as radation on boundary layer flows of this type. Both the skin frictions as well as the heat transfer rate are also significantly related to the radiation parameter. For all these cases;the numerical results are found to be in agreement with the physics of the problem.展开更多
This paper studies the change of electronic energy demand when people charge various kinds of electronic products (including small and large ones) in different places, as well as costs of meeting needs. By setting up ...This paper studies the change of electronic energy demand when people charge various kinds of electronic products (including small and large ones) in different places, as well as costs of meeting needs. By setting up a linear programming problem with the actual demand number of various charging carriers as decision variables, with the goal of the maximum cost reduction, and with the constraint of meeting needs of various customers, this paper finds out the lowest cost scheme.展开更多
Equations of Flat Space Cosmology (FSC) are utilized to characterize the model’s scalar temporal behavior of dark energy. A table relating cosmic age, cosmological redshift, and the temporal FSC Hubble parameter valu...Equations of Flat Space Cosmology (FSC) are utilized to characterize the model’s scalar temporal behavior of dark energy. A table relating cosmic age, cosmological redshift, and the temporal FSC Hubble parameter value is created. The resulting graph of the log of the Hubble parameter as a function of cosmological (or galactic) redshift has a particularly interesting sinuous shape. This graph greatly resembles what ΛCDM proponents have been expecting for a scalar temporal behavior of dark energy. And yet, the FSC <em>R</em><sub><em>h</em></sub><em> = ct </em>model expansion, by definition, neither decelerates nor accelerates. It may well be that apparent early cosmic deceleration and late cosmic acceleration both ultimately prove to be illusions produced by a constant-velocity, linearly-expanding, FSC universe. Furthermore, as discussed herein, the FSC model would appear to strongly support Freedman<em> et al.</em> in the current Hubble tension debate, if approximately 14 Gyrs can be assumed to be the current cosmic age.展开更多
Motivated by Bekenstein’s original thought that led him to his famous area-entropy formula for a black hole and by our recent study regarding the black hole dynamics, we identify the appropriate microscopic degrees o...Motivated by Bekenstein’s original thought that led him to his famous area-entropy formula for a black hole and by our recent study regarding the black hole dynamics, we identify the appropriate microscopic degrees of freedom in loop quantum gravity that are responsible for the black hole entropy. We achieve consistent results by taking the <em>j</em> = 1/2 edges as dominant and by subjecting these edges to experience quantum fluctuations at the horizon. This also leads to a modification of the value of the Immirzi parameter in the <em>SU</em>(2) framework.展开更多
The present study focused on water quality assessment of 14 hotspot locations in the Gulf of Suez by measuring the physicochemical parameters seasonally during 2016. The results of investigated area revealed that, the...The present study focused on water quality assessment of 14 hotspot locations in the Gulf of Suez by measuring the physicochemical parameters seasonally during 2016. The results of investigated area revealed that, the annual mean range of water was: temperature (21.91°C - 29.22°C), pH (7.64 - 7.78), salinity (38.71‰ - 42.74‰), dissolved oxygen (6.09 - 8.78 mgO2/l,) oxidizable organic matter (1.4 - 5.4 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (1.14 - 3.94 mgO2/l), total suspended solids (18.56 - 37.69 mg/l), ammonia (13.51 - 494.41 μg/l), nitrite (1.261 - 151.76 μg/l), nitrate (7.11 - 487.85), dissolved inorganic phosphate (2.22 - 53.26) and silicate (19.83 - 347.61 μg/l). The N:P ratio fluctuated between 4.21 and 1214.61 with the main value of 81.16 indicating that the different sites in the northern part of the Gulf of Suez are P-limited. Based on the Principal Component Analysis Data, the stations locating in the Northern and Southern side of the Gulf of Suez are relatively good water quality;meanwhile, water quality of the other stations locating in the northern side of the Gulf of Suez is found slightly polluted to a different degree co-incided with an increase in the human activities in each of these locations.展开更多
We try to enhance the AERMOD industrial pollution dispersion model with remote sensing observations and climatic models based on them. In this paper, we focus on surface parameters (albedo, roughness, Bowen ratio) and...We try to enhance the AERMOD industrial pollution dispersion model with remote sensing observations and climatic models based on them. In this paper, we focus on surface parameters (albedo, roughness, Bowen ratio) and land use classification on which they depend. We model maximum hourly concentrations and the resulting acute health risk and assess the effect on them produced by using remote sensing data for local areas around industrial plants instead of global standard AERMOD parameters. We consider five real multi-source plants for the effect of classification and two of them for the effect of surface parameters. The effect on the critical pollutant is measured in three ways: a) as difference between the yearly maxima of hourly concentrations of a critical pollutant (“absolute”);b) the same limited to daytime workhours and 95% quantile instead of absolute maximum (“regulatory”);c) as maximum hourly difference over a year (“instant”). The measure of effect is divided either by the reference concentration of the pollutant, which yields the impact on health risk, or by the concentration obtained with AERMOD standards, which yields relative measure of impact. For a), the impact of roughness dominates, that of albedo is small and that of the Bowen ratio is almost zero. For b), the impact of roughness is less prominent, and that of albedo and Bowen ratio is noticeable. For c), the impact is considerable for all three parameters. The effect of land use classification is considerable in all three cases a) </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> c). We provide the figures for different measures of remote sensing data effect and discuss the perspective of using remote sensing data in regulatory context.展开更多
Soil pore size distribution(SPSD) is one of the most important soil physical properties. This research investigated the relationships of location and shape parameters of the SPSD curves with plant-available water(PAW)...Soil pore size distribution(SPSD) is one of the most important soil physical properties. This research investigated the relationships of location and shape parameters of the SPSD curves with plant-available water(PAW) and least limiting water range(LLWR) of the light-textured soils at the Torogh Agricultural Research Station in north-eastern Iran. Soil moisture release curve(SMRC), PAW and LLWR in matric heads of 100 and 330 h Pa for the field capacity and location and shape parameters of the SPSD curves of 30 soils with different texture and organic carbon contents were determined, and the variable relationships were statistically analyzed. The results showed that the median equivalent pore diameter(de), mean de, standard deviation(SD*), and skewness of the SPSD curves were significantly correlated with PAW(PAW330) and LLWR(LLWR330) measured in a matric head of 330 h Pa. Decrease in deand increase in the diversity of soil pore size(SD*) increased PAW330 and LLWR330. The SD* values of all the soil samples were lower than the optimal ranges suggested in literature. Neither PAW nor LLWR values were significantly different in the soils with the optimal modal deand those with non-optimal modal de. Optimal values of median and mean equivalent pore diameters and kurtosis of SPSD curves led to a significant improvement of PAW330 and LLWR330 as soil physical quality indicators. It was recommended to revise the optimal ranges for SD* and modal defor future studies.展开更多
In this study, our goal is to obtain the entanglement dynamics of trapped three-level ion interaction two laser beams in beyond Lamb-Dicke parameters. Three values of LDP, <span style="white-space:nowrap;"...In this study, our goal is to obtain the entanglement dynamics of trapped three-level ion interaction two laser beams in beyond Lamb-Dicke parameters. Three values of LDP, <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>η</em>=0.09, <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>η</em>=0.2 </span></span>and <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>η</em>=0.3 </span>are given. We used the concurrence and the negativity to measure the amount of quantum entanglement created in the system. The interacting trapped ion led to the formation of phonons as a result of the coupling. In two quantum systems (ion-phonons), analytical formulas describing both these measurements are constructed. These formulas and probability coefficients include first order terms of final state vector. We report that long survival time of entanglement can be provided with two quantum measures. Negativity and concurrence maximum values are obtained N = 0.553 and for LDP = 0.3. As a similar, the other two values of LDP are determined and taken into account throughout this paper. For a more detailed understanding of entanglement measurement results, “contour plot” was preferred in Mathematica 8.展开更多
In this paper, we are interested to find the most sensitive parameter, local and global stability of ovarian tumor growth model. For sensitivity analysis, we use Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method to generate sampl...In this paper, we are interested to find the most sensitive parameter, local and global stability of ovarian tumor growth model. For sensitivity analysis, we use Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method to generate sample points and Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) method, uses those sample points to find out which parameters are important for the model. Based on our findings, we suggest some treatment strategies. We investigate the sensitivity of the parameters for tumor volume, <em>y</em>, cell nutrient density, <em>Q</em> and maximum tumor size, <em>ymax</em>. We also use Scatter Plot method using LHS samples to show the consistency of the results obtained by using PRCC. Moreover, we discuss the qualitative analysis of ovarian tumor growth model investigating the local and global stability.展开更多
With the support of numerous arguments, it has been shown that Melia’s claim that his cosmological Rh = ct model is flat and infinite is erroneous. In contrast, the model is positively curved, closed and, therefore, ...With the support of numerous arguments, it has been shown that Melia’s claim that his cosmological Rh = ct model is flat and infinite is erroneous. In contrast, the model is positively curved, closed and, therefore, finite. With respect to results of Melia’s model, it is identical to our Subluminal Model.展开更多
A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and it has been epidemic in more than 110 countries. The fi...A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and it has been epidemic in more than 110 countries. The first case of COVID-19 was found in Nepal on 23 January, 2020. Now the number of confirmed cases is increasing day by day. Thus, the disease has become a major public health concern in Nepal. The propose of this study is to describe the development of outbreak of the disease and to predict the outbreak in Nepal. In the present work, the transmission dynamics of the disease in Nepal is analyzed mathematically with the help of SIR compartmental model. Reported data from June 1<sup>st</sup> to June 17<sup>th</sup> 2020 of Nepal are used to identify the model parameters. The basic reproduction number of COVID-19 outbreak in Nepal is estimated. Predictions of the peak epidemic time and the final size of the epidemic are made using the model. Our work predicts that, after 125 days from June 1 the infection will reach the peak. In this work, a good correlation between the reported data and the estimation given by our model is observed.展开更多
In this research work, the upward transition probabilities for the transition levels, 0<sup>+</sup> → 2<sup>+</sup>, 2<sup>+</sup> → 4<sup>+</sup>, 4<sup>+</s...In this research work, the upward transition probabilities for the transition levels, 0<sup>+</sup> → 2<sup>+</sup>, 2<sup>+</sup> → 4<sup>+</sup>, 4<sup>+</sup> → 6<sup>+</sup> and 6<sup>+</sup> → 8<sup>+</sup> levels of even-even neutron rich <sup>104-114</sup>Ru isotopes have been calculated by using the Global Best Fit (GBF) method. In addition, the associated parameters such as, Quadrupole moment and Deformation parameter of even-even <sup>104-114</sup>Ru have been calculated. The dependency of these nuclear parameters shows the nuclear magic number tendency.展开更多
The modelling of the distribution transformer winding is the starting point and serves as important basis for the transformer characteristics analysis and the lightning pulse response prediction.A distributed paramete...The modelling of the distribution transformer winding is the starting point and serves as important basis for the transformer characteristics analysis and the lightning pulse response prediction.A distributed parameters model can depict the winding characteristics accurately,but it requires complex calculations.Lumped parameter model requires less calculations,but its applicable frequency range is not wide.This paper studies the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the lightning wave,compares the transformer modelling methods and finally proposes a modified lumped parameter model,based on the above comparison.The proposed model minimizes the errors provoked by the lumped parameter approximation,and the hyperbolic functions of the distributed parameter model.By this modification it becomes possible to accurately describe the winding characteristics and rapidly obtain the node voltage response.The proposed model can provide theoretical and experimental support to lightning protection of the distribution transformer.展开更多
This paper is concerned about the impact of network parameter errors on the reliable operation and management of electricity markets.Specifically,the paper investigates the so-called critical parameters in a network m...This paper is concerned about the impact of network parameter errors on the reliable operation and management of electricity markets.Specifically,the paper investigates the so-called critical parameters in a network model whose errors cannot be detected or estimated due to the lack of local measurement redundancy.Due to this property of critical parameters,it will be impossible to detect,identify and correct errors in these parameters.Given the fact that electricity market applications are heavily model-dependent,the locational marginal prices(LMPs)can be shown to be seriously distorted in the presence of critical parameter errors.Furthermore,if such errors are maliciously injected by adversaries,they will go undetected.Meanwhile,prices and revenues associated with power transactions may be strategically manipulated.An approach for quantifying the impact of critical parameters on the management of electricity markets is proposed.Conditions related to network topology and measurement configuration leading to the appearance of critical parameters are classified,and meter placement strategies for avoiding critical parameters are presented as well.Simulation results obtained by using IEEE test systems are given to verify the proposed analysis and design methods.展开更多
Compared with traditional materials, composite materials have lower specific gravity, larger specific strength, larger specific modulus, and better designability structure and structural performance. However, the vari...Compared with traditional materials, composite materials have lower specific gravity, larger specific strength, larger specific modulus, and better designability structure and structural performance. However, the variability of structural properties hinders the control and prediction of the performance of composite materials. In this work, the Rayleigh–Ritz and orthogonal polynomial methods were used to derive the dynamic equations of composite materials and obtain the natural frequency expressions on the basis of the constitutive model of laminated composite materials. The correctness of the analytical model was verified by modal hammering and frequency sweep tests. On the basis of the established theoretical model, the influencing factors, including layers, thickness, and fiber angles, on the natural frequencies of laminated composites were analyzed. Furthermore, the coupling effects of layers, fiber angle, and lay-up sequence on the natural frequencies of composites were studied. Research results indicated that the proposed method could accurately and effectively analyze the influence of single and multiple factors on the natural frequencies of composite materials. Hence, this work provides a theoretical basis for preparing composite materials with different natural frequencies and meeting the requirements of different working conditions.展开更多
Code smell detection is essential to improve software quality, enhancing software maintainability, and decrease the risk of faults and failures in the software system. In this paper, we proposed a code smell predictio...Code smell detection is essential to improve software quality, enhancing software maintainability, and decrease the risk of faults and failures in the software system. In this paper, we proposed a code smell prediction approach based on machine learning techniques and software metrics. The local interpretable model-agnostic explanations (LIME) algorithm was further used to explain the machine learning model's predictions and interpretability. The datasets obtained from Fontana et al. were reformed and used to build binary-label and multi-label datasets. The results of 10-fold cross-validation show that the performance of tree-based algorithms (mainly Random Forest) is higher compared with kernel-based and network-based algorithms. The genetic algorithm based feature selection methods enhance the accuracy of these machine learning algorithms by selecting the most relevant features in each dataset. Moreover, the parameter optimization techniques based on the grid search algorithm significantly enhance the accuracy of all these algorithms. Finally, machine learning techniques have high potential in predicting the code smells, which contribute to detect these smells and enhance the software's quality.展开更多
文摘In 2013, World-Universe Model (WUM) proposed a principally different way to solve the problem of Newtonian Constant of Gravitation measurement precision. WUM revealed a self-consistent set of time-varying values of Primary Cosmological parameters of the World: Gravitation parameter, Hubble’s parameter, Age of the World, Temperature of the Microwave Background Radiation, and the concentration of Intergalactic plasma. Based on the inter-connectivity of these parameters, WUM solved the Missing Baryon problem and predicted the values of the following Cosmological parameters: gravitation G, concentration of Intergalactic plasma, relative energy density of protons in the Medium, and the minimum energy of photons, which were experimentally confirmed in 2015-2018. Between 2013 and 2018, the relative standard uncertainty of G measurements decreased x6. The set of values obtained by WUM was recommended for consideration in CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants 2014.
文摘The municipal solid waste (msw) is a source of landfill gas (msw)—with methane gas content. Preoccupations for landfill gas (msw) management date back since 1976 when, at a landfill (msw) in California (USA), it turned out practically that the landfill gas (msw) with methane gas content contains a gas with high caloric value that can be collected and used for economic purposes. The landfill gas (msw) contains methane gas (30% - 60% volume), carbon dioxide (45% - 50% volume), hydrogen sulfide and other gases. Methane gas, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and other gases are listed in Kyoto Protocol as high greenhouse gases. Their ecological-rational management is both a national and global preoccupation. In terms of greenhouse gases, especially methane gas, the landfill (msw) is held responsible for 3.5% - 5% of the total global greenhouse gases. Practically, the quantitative estimation of the methane gas in a municipal solid waste landfill can be done by measuring the landfill gas (msw) flow in an extraction-collection well. In Romania, a quantitative estimation relationship of methane gas from deposits (msw) was made, approaching the problem in a different way. This paper presents the calculation formula, the working algorithm, the municipal waste landfill equation and the NOMOGRAMA of a municipal solid waste landfill (msw). The NOMOGRAMA allows us to define the values for parameter -m- (number of months needed for an amount of municipal solid waste (msw) to degrade, starting with the year from which the landfill gas (msw) emission with methane gas content is calculated). Taking into account the environmental conditions for each location of municipal solid waste landfill, the calculation uses various indexes and approximations, while the fundamental parameter remains -m- defined by the NOMOGRAMA of the municipal solid waste landfill (msw). A municipal solid waste landfill (msw) is a conglomerate of waste with various biodegradation periods between 2 - 3 years and 5 - 10 - 30 years. Degradation of waste (msw) in to dissolved organic carbon will take place in a number of months defined -m- starting with the year from which the methane gas emission with the NOMOGRAMA of the municipal solid waste landfill (msw) is calculated. The -m- values for the year of the quantitative emission of methane gas can be also done analytically, which requires good experience in the ecologic-rational management of the municipal solid waste (msw).
文摘The work presented herein investigates the velocity, heat transfer, Nusselt number and skin friction profiles involved in boundary layer flow past a moving vertical porous plate. Similarity transformations are employed to convert the governing nonlinear unsteady momentum and energy equations from their partial differential equation forms to boundary value ordinary differential equations. The resulting equations are then solved numerically by the Runge-Kutta fourth order method with the help of a shooting technique. Several features of the flow and heat transfer characteristics for different values of problem parameters are analyzed and discussed. These include the effects of the radiation parameter (R), suction and injection parameter (c), Grashof (Gr) and Prandtl (Pr) numbers on the flow and heat profiles. Numerical results show the impact of blowing and sucking as well as radation on boundary layer flows of this type. Both the skin frictions as well as the heat transfer rate are also significantly related to the radiation parameter. For all these cases;the numerical results are found to be in agreement with the physics of the problem.
文摘This paper studies the change of electronic energy demand when people charge various kinds of electronic products (including small and large ones) in different places, as well as costs of meeting needs. By setting up a linear programming problem with the actual demand number of various charging carriers as decision variables, with the goal of the maximum cost reduction, and with the constraint of meeting needs of various customers, this paper finds out the lowest cost scheme.
文摘Equations of Flat Space Cosmology (FSC) are utilized to characterize the model’s scalar temporal behavior of dark energy. A table relating cosmic age, cosmological redshift, and the temporal FSC Hubble parameter value is created. The resulting graph of the log of the Hubble parameter as a function of cosmological (or galactic) redshift has a particularly interesting sinuous shape. This graph greatly resembles what ΛCDM proponents have been expecting for a scalar temporal behavior of dark energy. And yet, the FSC <em>R</em><sub><em>h</em></sub><em> = ct </em>model expansion, by definition, neither decelerates nor accelerates. It may well be that apparent early cosmic deceleration and late cosmic acceleration both ultimately prove to be illusions produced by a constant-velocity, linearly-expanding, FSC universe. Furthermore, as discussed herein, the FSC model would appear to strongly support Freedman<em> et al.</em> in the current Hubble tension debate, if approximately 14 Gyrs can be assumed to be the current cosmic age.
文摘Motivated by Bekenstein’s original thought that led him to his famous area-entropy formula for a black hole and by our recent study regarding the black hole dynamics, we identify the appropriate microscopic degrees of freedom in loop quantum gravity that are responsible for the black hole entropy. We achieve consistent results by taking the <em>j</em> = 1/2 edges as dominant and by subjecting these edges to experience quantum fluctuations at the horizon. This also leads to a modification of the value of the Immirzi parameter in the <em>SU</em>(2) framework.
文摘The present study focused on water quality assessment of 14 hotspot locations in the Gulf of Suez by measuring the physicochemical parameters seasonally during 2016. The results of investigated area revealed that, the annual mean range of water was: temperature (21.91°C - 29.22°C), pH (7.64 - 7.78), salinity (38.71‰ - 42.74‰), dissolved oxygen (6.09 - 8.78 mgO2/l,) oxidizable organic matter (1.4 - 5.4 mg/l), biological oxygen demand (1.14 - 3.94 mgO2/l), total suspended solids (18.56 - 37.69 mg/l), ammonia (13.51 - 494.41 μg/l), nitrite (1.261 - 151.76 μg/l), nitrate (7.11 - 487.85), dissolved inorganic phosphate (2.22 - 53.26) and silicate (19.83 - 347.61 μg/l). The N:P ratio fluctuated between 4.21 and 1214.61 with the main value of 81.16 indicating that the different sites in the northern part of the Gulf of Suez are P-limited. Based on the Principal Component Analysis Data, the stations locating in the Northern and Southern side of the Gulf of Suez are relatively good water quality;meanwhile, water quality of the other stations locating in the northern side of the Gulf of Suez is found slightly polluted to a different degree co-incided with an increase in the human activities in each of these locations.
文摘We try to enhance the AERMOD industrial pollution dispersion model with remote sensing observations and climatic models based on them. In this paper, we focus on surface parameters (albedo, roughness, Bowen ratio) and land use classification on which they depend. We model maximum hourly concentrations and the resulting acute health risk and assess the effect on them produced by using remote sensing data for local areas around industrial plants instead of global standard AERMOD parameters. We consider five real multi-source plants for the effect of classification and two of them for the effect of surface parameters. The effect on the critical pollutant is measured in three ways: a) as difference between the yearly maxima of hourly concentrations of a critical pollutant (“absolute”);b) the same limited to daytime workhours and 95% quantile instead of absolute maximum (“regulatory”);c) as maximum hourly difference over a year (“instant”). The measure of effect is divided either by the reference concentration of the pollutant, which yields the impact on health risk, or by the concentration obtained with AERMOD standards, which yields relative measure of impact. For a), the impact of roughness dominates, that of albedo is small and that of the Bowen ratio is almost zero. For b), the impact of roughness is less prominent, and that of albedo and Bowen ratio is noticeable. For c), the impact is considerable for all three parameters. The effect of land use classification is considerable in all three cases a) </span><span style="font-family:Verdana;">-</span><span style="font-family:Verdana;"> c). We provide the figures for different measures of remote sensing data effect and discuss the perspective of using remote sensing data in regulatory context.
文摘Soil pore size distribution(SPSD) is one of the most important soil physical properties. This research investigated the relationships of location and shape parameters of the SPSD curves with plant-available water(PAW) and least limiting water range(LLWR) of the light-textured soils at the Torogh Agricultural Research Station in north-eastern Iran. Soil moisture release curve(SMRC), PAW and LLWR in matric heads of 100 and 330 h Pa for the field capacity and location and shape parameters of the SPSD curves of 30 soils with different texture and organic carbon contents were determined, and the variable relationships were statistically analyzed. The results showed that the median equivalent pore diameter(de), mean de, standard deviation(SD*), and skewness of the SPSD curves were significantly correlated with PAW(PAW330) and LLWR(LLWR330) measured in a matric head of 330 h Pa. Decrease in deand increase in the diversity of soil pore size(SD*) increased PAW330 and LLWR330. The SD* values of all the soil samples were lower than the optimal ranges suggested in literature. Neither PAW nor LLWR values were significantly different in the soils with the optimal modal deand those with non-optimal modal de. Optimal values of median and mean equivalent pore diameters and kurtosis of SPSD curves led to a significant improvement of PAW330 and LLWR330 as soil physical quality indicators. It was recommended to revise the optimal ranges for SD* and modal defor future studies.
文摘In this study, our goal is to obtain the entanglement dynamics of trapped three-level ion interaction two laser beams in beyond Lamb-Dicke parameters. Three values of LDP, <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>η</em>=0.09, <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>η</em>=0.2 </span></span>and <span style="white-space:nowrap;"><em>η</em>=0.3 </span>are given. We used the concurrence and the negativity to measure the amount of quantum entanglement created in the system. The interacting trapped ion led to the formation of phonons as a result of the coupling. In two quantum systems (ion-phonons), analytical formulas describing both these measurements are constructed. These formulas and probability coefficients include first order terms of final state vector. We report that long survival time of entanglement can be provided with two quantum measures. Negativity and concurrence maximum values are obtained N = 0.553 and for LDP = 0.3. As a similar, the other two values of LDP are determined and taken into account throughout this paper. For a more detailed understanding of entanglement measurement results, “contour plot” was preferred in Mathematica 8.
文摘In this paper, we are interested to find the most sensitive parameter, local and global stability of ovarian tumor growth model. For sensitivity analysis, we use Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method to generate sample points and Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) method, uses those sample points to find out which parameters are important for the model. Based on our findings, we suggest some treatment strategies. We investigate the sensitivity of the parameters for tumor volume, <em>y</em>, cell nutrient density, <em>Q</em> and maximum tumor size, <em>ymax</em>. We also use Scatter Plot method using LHS samples to show the consistency of the results obtained by using PRCC. Moreover, we discuss the qualitative analysis of ovarian tumor growth model investigating the local and global stability.
文摘With the support of numerous arguments, it has been shown that Melia’s claim that his cosmological Rh = ct model is flat and infinite is erroneous. In contrast, the model is positively curved, closed and, therefore, finite. With respect to results of Melia’s model, it is identical to our Subluminal Model.
文摘A novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. The disease was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and it has been epidemic in more than 110 countries. The first case of COVID-19 was found in Nepal on 23 January, 2020. Now the number of confirmed cases is increasing day by day. Thus, the disease has become a major public health concern in Nepal. The propose of this study is to describe the development of outbreak of the disease and to predict the outbreak in Nepal. In the present work, the transmission dynamics of the disease in Nepal is analyzed mathematically with the help of SIR compartmental model. Reported data from June 1<sup>st</sup> to June 17<sup>th</sup> 2020 of Nepal are used to identify the model parameters. The basic reproduction number of COVID-19 outbreak in Nepal is estimated. Predictions of the peak epidemic time and the final size of the epidemic are made using the model. Our work predicts that, after 125 days from June 1 the infection will reach the peak. In this work, a good correlation between the reported data and the estimation given by our model is observed.
文摘In this research work, the upward transition probabilities for the transition levels, 0<sup>+</sup> → 2<sup>+</sup>, 2<sup>+</sup> → 4<sup>+</sup>, 4<sup>+</sup> → 6<sup>+</sup> and 6<sup>+</sup> → 8<sup>+</sup> levels of even-even neutron rich <sup>104-114</sup>Ru isotopes have been calculated by using the Global Best Fit (GBF) method. In addition, the associated parameters such as, Quadrupole moment and Deformation parameter of even-even <sup>104-114</sup>Ru have been calculated. The dependency of these nuclear parameters shows the nuclear magic number tendency.
基金supported by the National Key Research and Development Plan of China under Grant(2016YFB0900600XXX)
文摘The modelling of the distribution transformer winding is the starting point and serves as important basis for the transformer characteristics analysis and the lightning pulse response prediction.A distributed parameters model can depict the winding characteristics accurately,but it requires complex calculations.Lumped parameter model requires less calculations,but its applicable frequency range is not wide.This paper studies the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the lightning wave,compares the transformer modelling methods and finally proposes a modified lumped parameter model,based on the above comparison.The proposed model minimizes the errors provoked by the lumped parameter approximation,and the hyperbolic functions of the distributed parameter model.By this modification it becomes possible to accurately describe the winding characteristics and rapidly obtain the node voltage response.The proposed model can provide theoretical and experimental support to lightning protection of the distribution transformer.
基金supported in part by the National Science Foundation(No.1947617)
文摘This paper is concerned about the impact of network parameter errors on the reliable operation and management of electricity markets.Specifically,the paper investigates the so-called critical parameters in a network model whose errors cannot be detected or estimated due to the lack of local measurement redundancy.Due to this property of critical parameters,it will be impossible to detect,identify and correct errors in these parameters.Given the fact that electricity market applications are heavily model-dependent,the locational marginal prices(LMPs)can be shown to be seriously distorted in the presence of critical parameter errors.Furthermore,if such errors are maliciously injected by adversaries,they will go undetected.Meanwhile,prices and revenues associated with power transactions may be strategically manipulated.An approach for quantifying the impact of critical parameters on the management of electricity markets is proposed.Conditions related to network topology and measurement configuration leading to the appearance of critical parameters are classified,and meter placement strategies for avoiding critical parameters are presented as well.Simulation results obtained by using IEEE test systems are given to verify the proposed analysis and design methods.
基金This work was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. N180304021), the National Science Foundation for Postdoctoral Scientists of China (Grant No. 2019M651125), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. U1708257).References。
文摘Compared with traditional materials, composite materials have lower specific gravity, larger specific strength, larger specific modulus, and better designability structure and structural performance. However, the variability of structural properties hinders the control and prediction of the performance of composite materials. In this work, the Rayleigh–Ritz and orthogonal polynomial methods were used to derive the dynamic equations of composite materials and obtain the natural frequency expressions on the basis of the constitutive model of laminated composite materials. The correctness of the analytical model was verified by modal hammering and frequency sweep tests. On the basis of the established theoretical model, the influencing factors, including layers, thickness, and fiber angles, on the natural frequencies of laminated composites were analyzed. Furthermore, the coupling effects of layers, fiber angle, and lay-up sequence on the natural frequencies of composites were studied. Research results indicated that the proposed method could accurately and effectively analyze the influence of single and multiple factors on the natural frequencies of composite materials. Hence, this work provides a theoretical basis for preparing composite materials with different natural frequencies and meeting the requirements of different working conditions.
文摘Code smell detection is essential to improve software quality, enhancing software maintainability, and decrease the risk of faults and failures in the software system. In this paper, we proposed a code smell prediction approach based on machine learning techniques and software metrics. The local interpretable model-agnostic explanations (LIME) algorithm was further used to explain the machine learning model's predictions and interpretability. The datasets obtained from Fontana et al. were reformed and used to build binary-label and multi-label datasets. The results of 10-fold cross-validation show that the performance of tree-based algorithms (mainly Random Forest) is higher compared with kernel-based and network-based algorithms. The genetic algorithm based feature selection methods enhance the accuracy of these machine learning algorithms by selecting the most relevant features in each dataset. Moreover, the parameter optimization techniques based on the grid search algorithm significantly enhance the accuracy of all these algorithms. Finally, machine learning techniques have high potential in predicting the code smells, which contribute to detect these smells and enhance the software's quality.